ASTM Standard Free Download

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) established the Standard Specification for Clay Roof Tiles (referred to as the ASTM - Manufacturers submit their products to ASTM laboratories, to ensure compliance with the ASTM standards i

scaffoldings load

Vienna-based artist Liddy Scheffknecht in this photo series where “all architectural elements except the scaffolding were removed from the photograph of a building under renovation.

Formwork Erection

Forms shall be maintained after erection to eliminate bending, warping and shrinking. They shall be checked for dimensions and conditions immediately prior to

2 Shotcrete Placing Methods

There are basically 2 single application methods for shotcrete placing. Dry process The dry mixture of shotcrete is conveyed inside a hose by air.


The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) was developed in the The main idea of this method is to use the geological stress of the surrounding rock mass