ASTM Standard Free Download

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) established the Standard Specification for Clay Roof Tiles (referred to as the ASTM - Manufacturers submit their products to ASTM laboratories, to ensure compliance with the ASTM standards i

scaffoldings load

Vienna-based artist Liddy Scheffknecht in this photo series where “all architectural elements except the scaffolding were removed from the photograph of a building under renovation.

Formwork Erection

Forms shall be maintained after erection to eliminate bending, warping and shrinking. They shall be checked for dimensions and conditions immediately prior to

2 Shotcrete Placing Methods

There are basically 2 single application methods for shotcrete placing. Dry process The dry mixture of shotcrete is conveyed inside a hose by air.

NATM

The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) was developed in the The main idea of this method is to use the geological stress of the surrounding rock mass

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