Geohazard

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One of the 73 quartz crystals used in the study. They averaged about one millimeter in diameter. Credit: Guilherme Gualda, Vanderbilt University

One of the 73 quartz crystals used in the study. They averaged about one millimeter in diameter. Credit: Guilherme Gualda, Vanderbilt University

This is a historic photo of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906. Credit: USGS Earth Observatory.

This is a historic photo of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906. Credit: USGS Earth Observatory.

Schematic summary of research findings showing the sequence of slip behavior. Credit: UC Riverside

Schematic summary of research findings showing the sequence of slip behavior. Credit: UC Riverside

Layout of the network of acoustic transponders (French in red, German in yellow) in the Sea of Marmara, on either side of the submarine segment of the North Anatolian fault (NAF), whose assumed trace is shown by the dashed line. Credit: © J-Y Royer / CNRS-UBO LDO

Layout of the network of acoustic transponders (French in red, German in yellow) in the Sea of Marmara, on either side of the submarine segment of the North Anatolian fault (NAF), whose assumed trace is shown by the dashed line. Credit: © J-Y Royer / CNRS-UBO LDO

Potential quake zone. Solid red line indicates an area of about 24,000 square miles that could move during a subduction-zone earthquake, affecting 140 million people or more. The dashed line represents a scenario in which the slip might take place along a separate fault. Credit: Chris Small/Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

Potential quake zone. Solid red line indicates an area of about 24,000 square miles that could move during a subduction-zone earthquake, affecting 140 million people or more. The dashed line represents a scenario in which the slip might take place along a separate fault. Credit: Chris Small/Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

Kyoto University researchers show that details about fault dip direction can be extracted from tsunami-borne electromagnetic fields. Such details may contribute to tsunami early warning systems that are more informative for residents of coastal areas. Credit: Eiri Ono/Kyoto University (K-CONNEX)

Kyoto University researchers show that details about fault dip direction can be extracted from tsunami-borne electromagnetic fields. Such details may contribute to tsunami early warning systems that are more informative for residents of coastal areas. Credit: Eiri Ono/Kyoto University (K-CONNEX)

Measurements from satellite radar images of two giant West Texas sinkholes (dark black areas) shows the ground around them is sinking, including indications a much larger potential new sinkhole is developing. The rates of east-west deformation of the ground (cm/year) are indicated in blue (eastward) and red (westward). Credit: Jin-woo Kim, SMU

Measurements from satellite radar images of two giant West Texas sinkholes (dark black areas) shows the ground around them is sinking, including indications a much larger potential new sinkhole is developing. The rates of east-west deformation of the ground (cm/year) are indicated in blue (eastward) and red (westward). Credit: Jin-woo Kim, SMU

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