Autoclaved Aerated Concrete - Civil Snapshot
AAC block is made of Portland cement, fine aggregates (fly ash or sand), water and an expansion agent. The autoclaving process results in the production of air voids in the material, making it less dense, easy to cut/ mould and better insulating. Autoclave is a strong, pressurized, steam-heated vessel.
Shear Force Diagram and Bending Moment Diagram for Standard Cases - Civil Snapshot
Cantilever subjected to A concentrated load at free end. Uniformly distributed load over entire span. Uniformly varying load over entire span.
What is the Post Tension Slab - Civil Snapshot
The slab which is tensioned after constructing slab is called Post tension slab. Reinforcement is provided to resist the compression. In Post tension slab the reinforcement is replaced with cables/ steel tendons. Post-tensioning provides a means to overcome the natural weakness of concrete in tension and to make better use of its strength in compression. …
What is the Chain Surveying - Civil Snapshot
Chain surveying is the easiest type of survey in which area to be surveyed is divided into a number of triangles. Chain surveying instruments: Chain Tape Arrows Ranging Rods Offset Staff Optical Square Different types of Chain Metric Chain Revenue chain Steel Band or Band Chain Engineer’s Chain Gunter's Chain Procedure of Chain surveying Field …
Importance of Reinforcements in Masonry Building - Civil Snapshot
The walls, if constructed with plain masonry would be in capable of resisting the magnitude of horizontal shear and bending forces imposed on them during earthquakes. For this reason, in the modern reinforced masonry systems, reinforcing steel is incorporated to resist the shear and tensile stresses, so developed.
Plane Table Surveying - Civil Snapshot
Plane Table Surveying is a graphical method of survey in which the field observations and plotting are done simultaneously. It is simple and cheaper than theodolite survey. It is most suitable for small scale maps..
Types of Shear Reinforcement - Civil Snapshot
The following three types of shear reinforcement are used Vertical stirrups Bent up bars along with stirrups. Inclined stirrups. Vertical Stirrups These are the steel bars vertically placed around the tensile reinforcement at suitable spacing along the length of the beam.
Tacheometry and Advantages of Tacheometric Surveying - Civil Snapshot
Tacheometry Tacheometry is a method of surveying in which horizontal distances, and differences in elevations are determined by measuring intercepts on a graduated scale and angles using theodolite. The word tacheometry derives from greek word ‘tachus’ meaning swift and ‘metron’, meaning measure. This method is also known as tachemetry or telemetry. Advantages of Tacheometric Surveying …
Comparison of Working Stress Method and Limit State Method - Civil Snapshot
Working Stress Method Limit State Method This method is based on the elastic theory which assumes that concrete and steel are elastic and the stress strain curve is linear for both. This method is based on the actual stress-strain curves of steel and concrete. For concrete, the stress strain curve is nonlinear. In this method …
Sunken Slab - Civil Snapshot
Slab which is provided below the washrooms to hide the sewage pipes or sewerage pipes is called Sunken slab. Since the pipes that carry water are concealed below the floor, care has to be taken to avoid leakage problems.
Underwater Construction Techniques - Civil Snapshot
It is a process in which the prepared concrete is poured below the water surface by using suitable methods. Underwater Construction Techniques: Caissons Cofferdams Underwater Concreting Placement Methods Tremie Pump Method Toggle Bags Bag Works Caissons Permanent structure. Large hollow structure that is sunk down through the earth Used in the construction of bridge piers, …
Guidelines for Column Shuttering - Civil Snapshot
To hold the concrete shuttering firmly in place and for proper alignment a concrete pad called starter is cast before fixing the shuttering. The thickness is about 45 mm to …
Types of Admixtures Used in Concrete and Their Uses - Civil Snapshot
Admixtures are chemicals which are added to concrete at the mixing stage to modify some of the properties of the mix. Admixtures should never be regarded as a substitute for good mix design, good workmanship, or use of good materials.
Causes of Earthquake Damage in Buildings - Civil Snapshot
Heavy dead weight and very stiff buildings, attracting large seismic inertia forces. Very low tensile and shear strength, particularly with poor mortars. Brittle behaviour in tension as well as compression.
Soil Stabilization by Compaction Grouting - Civil Snapshot
Grouting pressures shall be sufficiently in excess of confining overburden pressures to adequately compact the soil and fill all voids in the soil beneath the indicated areas. In no cases, however, shall the pressures be high enough to cause structural damage to the building.
Tips for Earthquake Resistant Building Design - Civil Snapshot
The building plan should be in a regular shape such as square or rectangular. No wall in a room should exceed 6.0m in length. Use pilasters or cross walls for longer walls. In hilly terrain, it should not exceed 3.5m in length.