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The Fifteen Magic Square Problem (a.k.a. 34 Problem) Old versions of the fifteen puzzle typically had pieces that could be removed, and sometimes a piece 16 was included that was not used to play the normal fifteen puzzle, or left in for making a magic square, of the numbers 1 to 16, defined as an arrangement so that the four rows, the four columns, and the two diagonals all sum to 34.
Magic Squares represent a mathematical convergence of the verbal/syntactical and the visual/compositional. From the simple and elegant Lo Shu sequence from Ancient China to the baroque and heady formulations of the Renaissance magicians, the mystery and fascination of magic squares have a long and interesting cultural history that spans over five thousand years, four continents and dozens of systems of thought.