The map in the picture shows Colonial Africa from It shows that the French owned the land we know as Chad today. However, before that the French discovered Chad in the It took them 10 years to fully claim the country until the Chadians won it over.
European powers carve up Africa. From 1881 right up until World War I, European countries competed to colonize as much African land as they could. Britain and France seized the largest parcels of territory during this so-called "scramble for Africa.